1. Appendix 1 – The Legislative and Policy Context.
    Download PDF
  2. Appendix 2 – A STATEMENT ON NATURAL BEAUTY Purpose of a statement on natural beauty in Wales
    Download PDF
  3. Appendix 3 – Well-Being of future generations act and future Bannau
    Download PDF
  4. Appendix 4 – Mission Cross Reference
    Download PDF
Term Definition


The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic eco-systems. Includes diversity within and between species, habitats and ecosystems.

Carbon footprint

Measures the total greenhouse gas emissions caused directly and indirectly by a person, organisation, event or product.

Carbon sequestration

The uptake of carbon containing substances, in particular carbon dioxide to a storage reservoir (e.g. trees, soils) so reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Circular economy

An alternative to a traditional linear economy (make, use, dispose) in which we keep resources in use for as long as possible, extract the maximum value from them whilst in use, then recover and regenerate products and materials at the end of each service life.

Climate change

A change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and/or variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer.

Condition (of a species or habitat)

The capacity to yield services relative to its potential capacity. This is usually described in relation to a desired reference state (good or favourable condition) and is typically defined in terms of extent, distribution, structures and functions, and species composition for habitats and population size structure and habitat quality for species.


The degree to which the landscape facilitates or impedes movement among resource patches.

Doughnut economics

A visual framework for sustainable development – shaped like a doughnut – combining the concepts of planetary boundaries with the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The name derives from the shape of the diagram, i.e. a disc with a hole in the middle. The centre hole of the model depicts the proportion of people that lack access to life’s essentials (healthcare, education, equity and so on) while the crust represents the ecological ceilings (planetary boundaries) that life depends on and must not be overshot. The diagram was developed by Kate Raworth.

Ecological footprint

An indicator of the total environmental burden that society places on the planet. It represents the area of land needed to provide raw materials, energy and food, as well as absorb pollution and waste created and is measured in global hectares.


Communities of interacting animals, plants and other organisms and their non-living (physical and chemical) environment.

Ecosystem services

Typically used to categorise the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. The four categories are: provisioning services e.g. food and water; regulating services e.g. flood and disease control; cultural services e.g. spiritual and recreational; and supporting services e.g. soil formation and nutrient cycling.

Greenhouse gases

A group of gases that contribute either directly to climate change (including global warming) owing to their positive radiative forcing effect, or indirectly because they can produce increases in tropospheric ozone concentrations and this increases radiative forcing (warming of the atmosphere).


All water which is below the surface of the ground in the saturation zone and in direct contact with the ground or subsoil. It provides baseflow to springs, rivers and wetlands and contributes to drinking water supplies


An ecological or environmental space/area that is inhabited by a particular organism or ecological community. It is characterised primarily by its physical features (e.g. soil, climate, water quality etc.) and secondarily by the species of plants and animals that live there. See also “Broad habitat”.

Invasive non-native species

Plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms whose introduction and/or spread outside their natural past or present ranges pose a risk to biodiversity or have other unforeseen negative consequences.


A big goal designed to set a strategic direction, inspire and galvanise action.

Natural resources

The living and non-living components of ecosystems.

Net zero

Cutting greenhouse gas emissions to as close to zero as possible, with any remaining emissions re-absorbed from the atmosphere, by natural processes.

Nature positive

Halting and reversing the current decline in biodiversity so that species and ecosystems begin to recover.

Planetary boundaries

A set of nine processes that regulate the stability and resilience of the Earth within which humanity can continue to develop and thrive for generations to come. Crossing these boundaries increases the risk of generating large-scale abrupt or irreversible environmental changes. Devised in 2009 by former Stock- holm Resilience Centre director Johan Rockström with a group of 28 internationally renowned scientists.

Protected sites (or protected areas)

Areas that have been designated under EU and/or UK legislation for specific biological or geological features.

Public Service Boards

A group (board) set up in each local authority area as defined in the Wellbeing of Future Generations (Wales) Act.The boards comprise of the local authority, the local health board for an area any of part of which falls within the local authority area, the Welsh fire and rescue authority for an area any part of which falls within the local authority area, and the Natural Resources Body for Wales (Natural Resources Wales, NRW).

Regulation(s) (in a legal sense, not the same as regulation of processes and services)

A “regulation” is a binding legislative act. It must be applied in its entirety across Wales, the UK or EU (depending on the scale the regulation applies to).

Resilience (of ecosystems)

The capacity of ecosystems to deal with disturbances, either by resisting them, recovering from them, or adapting to them, whilst retaining their ability to deliver services and benefits now and in the future.


The likelihood of an outcome (usually negative) to the environment, or the potential impact of a pressure on the environment.

Semi-natural habitats

Habitats in which the vegetation is mostly composed of native plant taxa, but where human land use and other activities play a key role in community development and maintenance. Examples are numerous, ranging across the spectrum of major habitat classes in Wales, including most forms of deciduous woodland, dwarfshrub heathland, and many coastal formations. Habitat expressions least influenced by human activities are sometimes called ‘near-natural’; at the other end of the spectrum certain degraded habitats, such as modified bog, are also treated as semi-natural.

Sustainable Development Goals

17 goals adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 to provide a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future.

1. No Poverty. 2. Zero Hunger. 3. Good Health and Wellbeing. 4. Quality Education. 5. Gender Equality. 6. Clean Water and Sanitation. 7. Affordable and Clean Energy. 8. Decent Work and Economic Growth. 9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure. 10. Reduced Inequalities. 11. Sustainable Cities and Communities. 12. Responsible Consumption and Production. 13. Climate Action. 14. Life Below Water. 15. Life on Land. 16. Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions. 17. Partnerships for the Goals.


A target is a clear expression of a policy priority, setting out exactly what the Government wants to have done and by when. Targets let those responsible for delivery know what needs to happen, so that they can plan, monitor and deliver the specified change.


A context- and situation-dependent state, comprising basic material for a good life, freedom and choice, health and bodily well-being, good social relations, security, peace of mind, and spiritual experience.

Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act

This Act is about improving the social, economic, environmental, and cultural well-being of Wales. It will make the public bodies listed in the Act think more about the long-term, work better with people and communities and each other, look to prevent problems, and take a more joined-up approach. This will help us to create a Wales that we all want to live in, now and in the future. To make sure we are all working towards the same vision, the Act puts in place seven well-being goals. Public Service Boards are required to put together Well-being Assessments to help implement action to improve well-being. Wellbeing Indicators will be used to measure the success of actions.